First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Commonly Prescribed Drugs

Every day in the US, medication costing millions of dollars is prescribe to hundreds of thousands people. There are thousands of different drugs used to treat hundreds of illnesses. What follows is a general guide to some of the broad categories of medication, how they work and common side effects.


ANALGESICS (PAINKILLERS)

Acetaminophen and aspirin are the mildest analgesics, used for headaches, joint pains, menstrual pain, and toothache. They are equally effective, but aspirin also reduces inflammation. Acetaminophen can be used in children under the age of twelve. Side effects are rare, but it is potentially fatal even in minor overdose because of toxic effects on the liver. Side effects of aspirin and other anti-inflammatories (e.g. ibuprofen) include stomach irritation and bleeding. Asthma sufferers can be sensitive to aspirin, leading to increased wheezing, and even death in some cases. Stronger analgesics work on the brain to reduce the perception of pain. These include drowsiness, constipation, nausea and vomiting.

THE EFFECT OF ANALGESICS

Strong analgesics known as opioids, derived from opium, are used to relieve sever pain. Pain is transmitted in signals along nerves from the source of pain to the brain, where it passes from one brain cell to another until it reaches the part of the brain that interprets the signal as pain. Opioid analgesics block the transmission of the nerve impulses in the brain, reducing the sensation of pain.

HEART DISEASE

There are around ten different classes of drugs used to treat variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, blood clots, angina, and palpitations. The best known of the drugs are water tablets (diuretics). They remove excess fluid from the circulatory system, lowering blood pressure and improving breathing in heart failure. Side effects include stomach upsets, gout, and rashes.

Beta-blockers reduce heart rate and lower blood pressure, but can cause tiredness, cold hands and feet, and sleep disturbances. They should not be taken by asthmatics because they may trigger a fatal attack of wheezing. Digoxin is used to treat irregular heart rate and may induce nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite if the dosage is too high. Some drugs used for treating raised blood pressure can cause impotence (reversible on stopping medication).
 
ASTHMA

There are two types of asthma therapy. Treatment of wheezing attacks is by inhaled drugs, including salbutamol and terbutaline (known as relievers), which open up the airways by relaxing the muscle in the walls of breathing tubes. Preventatives, such as inhaled steroids, improve breathing by reducing the amount of sticky mucus blocking the airways. Inhaled drugs have few side effects, although steroids can cause an overgrowth of yeast infection at the back of the throat.

HOW ANTACIDS WORK

Acid in digestive juices may inflame the lining of the stomach and irritate the stomach walls. Antacids are used to relieve indigestion or help stomach ulcers to heal. They are mild alkaline substances taken orally that neutralizes acidity in the digestive juices, allowing eroded areas in the mucus membrane lining the stomach to recover.

Digestive juices in the stomach contain acid, which may eat away at the mucus layer and inflame the stomach lining.

The antacid combines with stomach acid and neutralizes it, reducing irritation and giving the mucus membrane time to heal.

DEPRESSION

All drugs for depression work by affecting neurotransmitters, chemicals in the brain that pass signals between nerves. These neurotransmitters are low in depressed individuals. Older drugs called tricyclics work mainly on noradrenalin. Side effects include drowsiness, agitation, dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, and retention urine.

Newer drugs, such as Prozac, raise the levels of serotonin to improve symptoms. They may cause nausea, agitation, loss of appetite, and sweating. Antidepressants take two to four weeks to have an effect, and should always be withdrawn slowly.

STOMACH PROBLEMS

Many stomach problems, including ulcers, heartburn, and indigestion, are caused by excess acid in the stomach. The simplest drugs used to treat symptoms are antacids, which neutralize stomach acid. These drugs can form a raft on top of the stomach contents, preventing backflow from the stomach into the esophagus.

More advanced drugs reduce acid production by blocking the action of nerves supplying acid-producing glands in the lining of the stomach (H2 blockers), or by acting on the acid pump within the cells of these glands (proton pump inhibitors). These drugs have few side effects, and work so well that it is difficult to persuade patients to stop taking them.

HOW BRONCHODILATORS WORK

Bronchodilators widen the airways of the lungs to ease breathing difficulties caused by conditions such as asthma. Before inhaling the drug, the airways become abnormally narrowed as the muscles in their walls contract.

Bronchodilators relieve wheezing, tight chest, and shortness of breath by acting on nerve endings in the muscles in the walls of the airways. The muscles relax and the airways widen,  increasing airflow in the lungs.

 
 
 
Commonly Prescribed Drugs

 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue