First Aid Techniques
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
Everyday First Aid
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
Using Dressings and Cold
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
What They Do and Side
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
Earaches, Toothache and Sore-Throat

Earache can be exceptionally painful. It has a number of common causes, including infection, or as a symptom of other conditions such as flu or tonsillitis. Like earache. Toothache can cause agonizing pain. Usually caused by a decaying or damage tooth, it can also arise as a result of problems such as an ear infection or sinusitis, or even from jaw tension. In babies and children, there may be pain and discomfort as their teeth come through. Some throats can be a sign of infection such as tonsillitis or a symptom of colds and flu. There may be swelling and infection around the throat, or swollen glands visible under the jaw.


  1. If there is a fever or discharge, seek urgent medical help, as this may be a sign of serious infection or a burst eardrum. Seek medical advice if there is any loss of hearing. Check the history of the problem to rule out injury to the ear or skull, or the presence of a foreign object.
  2. Assist the person into a comfortable position. A hot water bottle wrapped in a towel placed on the ear may provide some pain relief.
  3. Enable the person to take her usual analgesics.
  4. If the condition persists or gets worse, especially in children, seek medical advice.


When used according to the instructions, analgesics such as acetaminophen have little risk for a healthy adult. Medicines such as acetaminophen syrup made especially for children can provide safe pain relief.

People in severe pain are at risk from an accidental overdose of analgesics and while paracetamol is generally safe, one of its potential drawbacks is that very few extra pills are required to risk an overdose.

To reduce the chances of problems with any analgesics:

  • Read and follow the instructions carefully.
  • Seek advice from your doctor or pharmacist if necessary.
  • Do not leave analgesics near the bed while sleeping. It is easy to wake up in pain and forget when the last dose was taken.
  • Seek early medical advice if you think that an overdose may have been taken, even if there are no signs and symptoms of a problem. Acetaminophen poisoning, for example does not show up immediately but the antidote needs to be takes as soon as possible.


  • Check the history of the problem to rule put poisoning or burns.
  • Give the person plenty of cold fluids to drink.
  • Enable the person to take his usual analgesics.
  • Seek medical advice if the condition persists or if sore throats are recurrent, particularly in children.


1.   Check the history of the problem to rule out any injury to the mouth or jaw.

2. Assist the person into a comfortable position. The throbbing pain associated with an infected tooth is often eased if the person is sitting up.

3.  Enable the person to take her usual analgesics.

4.   A hot-water bottle wrapped in a towel or hot compress placed alongside the face may help relieve the pain. Oil of cloves applied to the cotton swab and placed on the tooth (not the gums) may also help numb the pain. Children may benefit from teething remedies available from pharmacies.

Encourage the person to make an appointment with a dentist.
Abdominal Pain

First Aid Procedures
Breathing Difficulties
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning from Household
Poisoning from Industrial
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Emergency Childbirth
Wilderness First Aid
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue