First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Minor Wounds

Most minor wounds can be treated in the home without the need for further medical attention. First aid treatment can promote recovery and prevent infection. However, further medical advice should be sought if: there is a foreign body embedded in the wound; the wound shows sign of infection; the wound has the potential for tetanus and the injured person’s immunization is not up-to-date; the wound is from a human or animal bite.

TREATING MINOR WOUNDS

If possible, wash your hands before treating the wound. Check that there is nothing in the wound. If the wound is dirty, clean it under running water. Pat dry with clean, non-fluffy material. Clean the wound from the center out with gauze swabs or antiseptic wipes, using a fresh piece for each wipe. Cover the wound with an adhesive dressing to apply pressure and protect from infection. Elevate the wound if necessary to help control bleeding.

  1. Check there is nothing embedded in the wound and cleans and dry it.
  2. Clean wound with antiseptic wipes or swabs, then cover it with a dressing for protection and to apply pressure.
  3. Raise the wound if necessary to reduce blood flow to the affected area.

IF THERE IS GRAVELER GRIT IN THE WOUND

If there is loose debris on the wound this can be easily washed away with water or taken off by gently dabbing with clean gauze. If there are small bits of debris embedded into the wound these should be treated as foreign bodies. Gently cover with a clean dressing and bandage the dressing into place, taking care not to press on the embedded debris. Raise the injured part if appropriate and seek medical advice.

BRUISING

A bruise is the sign of internal bleeding. Usually caused by direct impact, bruises are sometimes painful but generally heal swiftly wit little intervention needed.

A bruise goes through several changes in appearance as it heals and may not appear for some time, even days, after the accident. Initially, the injured part may be red from the impact; over time this may become blue as blood seeps into the injured tissue; as it heals it becomes brown and then fades to yellow.

Severe bruising can also be the sign of serious internal bleeding. If bruising is extensive and is accompanied by any of the following sign and symptoms, assume that serious internal bleeding is present. Treat the injured person for shock and seek medical help.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF INTERNAL BLEEDING

  • Victim is known to have had an accident (not necessarily in the immediate past)
  • Signs and symptoms of shock
  • Bruising
  • Boarding—this most commonly occurs where there is bleeding into the stomach area; the quantity of blood combined with the tissues swelling results in a rigidity to the tissues
  • Swelling
  • Bleeding from body orifices

Most bruises, however, are not serious. First aid can reduce pain and promote recovery from an uncomfortable bruise.

TREATMENT FOR MINOR BRUISING

  • Check for underlying injuries such as broken bones or sprains.
  • Apply a cold compress to the site of the bruise to reduce swelling.
Raise and support the injured part as appropriate.
 
 
 
Abdominal Pain

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue