First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Bleeding from Special Sites

Bleeding from bodily orifices includes nosebleeds, bleeding from the ear, mouth, vagina, anus, and urethra. It may be an indication of a serious disorder.

NOSEBLEED
Nosebleeds are very common and often the cause is unknown. For general treatment of uncomplicated nosebleed, see How to Treat Nosebleeds, page 89, and Controlling bleeding from the Mouth and Nose. If a bleeding follows heavy impact to the nose, then assume that there may be a broken nose or cheekbone.

Above

If there is blood loss from the ear, keep the victim as still as possible and rest the head with the injured side down, with a clean pad held over the ear into which blood can drain.

BLEEDING FROM THE EAR

If the blood from the ear is thin and watery then it is likely that there has been some damage to the skull, and possibly the brain, since the blood is mixing with the fluid that cushions the brain. This is a very serious injury and 911 should be called as soon as possible. Keep the victim as still as you can and gently rest the head, injured ear down, with a clean pad held over the ear for the blood to drain into. Do not tie this pad in place. Keep a check on the victim’s airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

If the blood is bright red and is accompanied by earache, deafness, a sudden change in pressure, or an expulsion then it is likely to be burst eardrum. Again, keep the injured ear downward, hold a clean pad in place, and seek medical attention.

BLEEDING FROM THE MOUTH


If the bleeding from the mouth follows a direct impact to the face it is likely the bleeding has been caused by damage to the teeth, gums, or tongue. There may also be damage to the jaw and cheekbones. Bright red and frothy bleeding from the mouth may be a sign of damage to the lungs.

Dark red blooding being coughed up from the mouth may be a sign of a burst stomach ulcer. Seek urgent medical attention.

BLEEDING FROM THE VAGINA

The most likely reason for vaginal bleeding is menstruation (a Period). If it is the case and the bleed is accompanied by cramps then woman may wish to take her normal analgesics.

A woman complaining of vaginal bleeding not related to her periods should be given privacy and sensitive handling, with gentle questioning to determine the cause. For all vaginal bleeding, provide sanitary pads or a clean towel where possible. Where the bleeding is potentially pregnancy-related, do not dispose of old pads of any blood loss. Instead, move these discreetly away from the woman to be checked by medical staff.

Bleeding in an early pregnancy may be an indication of a miscarriage, but there are number of other potential causes. Make the woman comfortable and seek advice from her midwife or doctor. If the bleeding is severe and/or she is displaying signs of shock call 911.

In later pregnancy a bright red, painless bleed may indicate a serious problem with the placenta. Make the woman comfortable, call 911 and treat for shock.

If the bleeding is as result of an accident or recent assault, call 911 and treat for shock.

Right

A woman with vaginal bleeding needs to be treated sensitively. Provide clean towels or sanitary pads, and keep these for medical staff to check if you suspect a miscarriage.

HOW TO TREAT NOSEBLEEDS IN ADULTS

1. Lean forward and split blood into a handkerchief or some other receptacle.

2. Pinch the nose just below the bone and apply firm pressure for 10 minutes (this is the amount of time it takes for a clot to form). If the bleeding has not stooped after 10 minutes, apply pressure for two further periods of 10 minutes. If it still bleeding then either take or send the victim to hospital.

Once the bleeding has stopped, advise the victim not to scratch, pick, or blow his nose, not to drink hot liquid, and not to exert himself, as all these activities can dislodge the clot and cause the bleeding to start again.

BLEEDING FROM THE ANUS

Bleeding from the anus may be bright red and fresh looking. If it follows a recent accident, this may indicate injury to the anus or lower bowel. Treat for shock as appropriate and seek medical help.

Black, tarry blood has been partially digested and indicates a potential injury to the upper bowel. Again, treat for shock as appropriate and seek medical help.

BLEEDING FROM THE URETHRA

Blood in the urine, particularly following an accident, may indicate injury to the bladder, kidneys, or other internal organs. It may also accompany a broken pelvis where the bone has damaged the bladder. Treat for shock as appropriate and seek medical help as quickly as possible. There is no way of determining the seriousness of the situation until it is in expert hands.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue