First Aid Techniques
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
Everyday First Aid
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
Using Dressings and Cold
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
What They Do and Side
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest

Blood is carried around the body in a transport system of arteries, capillaries, and veins, and any damage to this network results in bleeding. Bleeding can be both external and internal. External bleeding involves a break to the skin surface, known as a wound, which can take may different forms. Internal bleeding is bleeding that occurs inside the body whe4n there is no external injury for the blood to escape from. The most common form of internal bleeding is a small bruise from a minor impact. Heavy impact from car accidents, fights, or falls, for example, can lead to serious internal bleeding, which may kill.


Arteries have thick muscular walls, that contract. This pushes blood out from the heart under pressure. The blood contained within them is full of oxygen, which has been collected from the lungs, and the main function of the arteries is to take this oxygen-rich blood to the organs and body tissue. Because the blood is under pressure, and is full of oxygen, arterial bleeding is characterized by bright red blood pumping from an injury. Arterial bleeding is very serious as blood is rapidly lost.

Veins have thin walls and return blood from the organs and tissues to the heart. They do not have muscles of their own and rely on the actions of the muscles around them to squeeze the blood around the body, they have a series of one-way valves that ensure a one-way flow. When these valves deteriorate, blood pools in the veins, making them swell. This weakens the vein wall, resulting in a condition known as varicose veins. While the blood loss from bleeding vein does not tend to be as quick as bleeding artery, it does nonetheless have the potential to be very serious and even fatal injury and because it has little or no oxygen stored in the blood to be pushed out into the body tissues and organs.


Small blood loss is very common and rarely needs much treatment. Large blood loss may lead, if untreated, to shock and potentially, death.


Clean and deep cuts characterized by paper cuts and knives are known as incisions. While these wounds do not tend to bleed a lot there may be underlying damage to tendons and other tissues,


are jagged wounds, which tend to bleed a lot.

Punctured wounds

are, as their names suggests, deep injuries caused by a pointes object such as a knitting needle. They do not tend to bleed a great deal but they carry the risk of infection because dirt can be carried a long way into the tissue. There is also a greater risk damage to vital organs such as the lungs or liver.


are commonplace injury and involve damage to the top layers of the skin. They do not cause major blood loss but are often dirty, because grazes tend to have debris embedded with them.


When a blood vessel is torn or cut, a series of chemical reactions takes place that causes the formation of a blood clot to seal the injury. Components of the blood known as platelets clump together at the injury site. Damaged tissue and platelets release chemicals that activate proteins called clotting factors. These react with a special protein (fibrinogen) to form a mesh of filaments that traps blood cells. These form the basis of a blood cells to fight infection and specialized blood cells that help promote repair and recovery. A scab will form to protect the wound until repair has taken place. When applying pressure to the site of a wound you are helping the clotting process.

Vomiting and Diarrhea

First Aid Procedures
Breathing Difficulties
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning from Household
Poisoning from Industrial
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Emergency Childbirth
Wilderness First Aid
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue