First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Burns and Scalds

Burns and scalds, a type of burn caused by wet heat, are potentially fatal injuries. They can cause life-threatening shock through serious fluid loss and, if around the face and neck, can restrict breathing.


WHAT ARE THE RISKS FROM BURNS?

In burns, fluid is lost in three main ways:

  • Blistering
  • Swelling around the injury
  • Directly from the injury

While the fluid loss may not be visible as liquid lying around the victim it is nevertheless lost from the blood as a straw-colored substance known as plasma. Severe burns therefore can and often do prove to be fatal.

The second risk from burns is infection. The damaged tissue provides little or no resistance to infection and serious problems may arise some time after the initial injury. The risk of infection increases with the size and depth of the burn, and the victim will probably suffer from shock as well.

CAUSES OF BURNS

Dry eat

This is the most common type of burn and includes burns caused by hot objects such as exhausts or by cigarettes or lighters.

Wet heat

Also known as a scald, wet heat usually refers to hot water or steam but it can also include other hot liquids such as oil or fat.

Friction

When two objects rub together very quickly friction generates heat, causing another kind of dry burn.

Chemical burns

Industrial and household chemicals can cause serious burns.

Electrical burns

These can be caused by the everyday low-voltage currents found in switches, wires, appliances around the home or from the high-voltage cables scattered around the countryside in the form of power lines, subway tracks, and so forth. In rarer cases electrical burns can be caused by lighting strikes.

Radiation burns

While this may sound dramatic, most of us have suffered some degree of radiation burn at some point in our lives—more commonly known as sunburn. DEPTH OF BURN

First degree burns

Involve only the outer layer of skin and, although often extremely painful, are generally not life-threatening unless a very large surface area of the body is covered. The burned area is very sore and is usually red and possibly a little swollen. If good first aid treatment is applied and the area burned is not extensive, then further medical treatment is unlikely to be needed.

Second degree burns

Include the top layers of skin and involve blistering. They are characterized by red, raw-looking skin, blisters that weep clear fluid, and pain. The risk of shock is high with second degree burns and any burn of this type needs medical attention. Second degree burns covering a substantial percentage of the body can kill.
 
Third degree burns

Involve damage to all the layers of skin, usually including the nerve endings and other underlying tissues and organs. Characterized by charred tissue often surrounded by white waxy areas of dead skin with damaged nerves, third degree burns will always need emergency medical attention and in the long term will often require plastic surgery.

AREA OF THE BODY BURNED

Generally, the larger the area of the body burned, the more serious the burn. Any burn to the face or neck needs urgent medical attention. As a general principle, if the victim has other injuries, appears to be in a great deal of pain, is showing signs and symptoms of shock, is having difficulty breathing, or you have other reasons to suspect that his or her condition is more serious, then call an ambulance whatever the extent or depth of the burn.

HOW DO YOU TELL HOW SEVERE A BURN IS?

Many burns are minor and can be safely treated at home or with help from local doctor or pharmacist.

However, the size and depth of the burn will tell you if it needs urgent medical treatment.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue