First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns

While the general rules for the treatment of burns are the same, regardless of the type of burn, there are some additional considerations for chemical burns. The key point when dealing with chemicals is not to contaminate yourself. Chemical spills are not always obvious—some very toxic chemicals look like water—so look for sign such as a HAZMAT (hazardous material) label, empty chemical containers, or guidance from bystanders. If in doubt, call 911 rather than approach the injured person yourself. Remember that some household substances, particularly cleaning materials such as oven cleaner, can cause chemical burns.

TREATING CHEMICAL BURNS

  1. If you feel that you can safely approach the victim, then do so carefully.

  2. If necessary, wear protective clothing to protect yourself from contamination.

  3. Ventilate the room if possible because many chemicals affect breathing.

  4. When cooling the burn with water drains away from both the victim and yourself. It may be necessary to flood the injured part for longer to ensure that the chemical is totally washed away. This take more than 20 minutes.

  5. Call 911. Make sure you have mentioned that it is a chemical burn so that the additional help can be sent for if necessary and so that any antidotes can be sent with the ambulance.

  6. If possible, remove contaminated clothes from the victim because this may keep burning, but only do this if you can do it without contaminating yourself or causing the victim more harm.

  7. Cover the burn with a clean, non-fluffy material as appropriate and tie loosely in place if necessary.

  8. Treat for shock and reassure the victim until emergency help arrives the scene.

WHAT IF THE CHEMICALS REACTS WITH WATER?

Some industrial chemicals do not react badly with water. Where such chemicals are used, people working with them should have been trained in the use of an antidote. If there is nobody around with the expertise, do not waste time looking for an antidote—apply liberal amounts of water to try to wash the chemical away.

CHEMICAL BURNS TO THE EYE

Chemical burns to the eye can be very serious. Early rinsing of the eye with cold water will help flush away the chemical and reduce scarring.

TREATMENT

  1. Protect yourself, the victim, and bystanders from further contamination.

  2. Hold the affected eye under cold running water for at least 10 minutes to flush out the chemical, allowing the injured person to blink periodically. You may need to hold the eyelid open. Make sure that the water flow is gentle. Do not allow contaminated water to fall across the good eye and so contaminate that eye also.

  3. Ask the injured person to hold a non-fluffy sterile or clean pad across the eye, tying it in place if hospital treatment may be delayed.

  4. Take or send the person to hospital with details of the chemical if possible.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CHEMICAL BURNS TO THE EYE

  • Known exposure to the chemical
  • Intense pain
  • Redness and swelling
  • Reluctance or inability to open the eye
  • Tears from the eye

FLUSH BURNS TO THE EYE

Caused by looking into very bright light, flash burns damage the surface of the cornea, the transparent front of the eyeball. Recovery can take some time and in some instances the damage can be permanent (for example, if a person has looked at the sun through a telescope without appropriate protection).

TREATMENT

  1. Check the history to rule out chemical burns or a foreign body in the eye.

  2. Reassure the injured person, and wear gloves to prevent infecting the eye.

  3. Place pads over both eyes and bandage in place if it will be some time until medical help arrives. Remember that this will effectively blind the person temporarily so stay with her to reassure and guide.

  4. Take or send the person to hospital because she will need medical attention.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FLASH BURNS TO THE EYE

  • Known exposure to intense light (which may happened some time ago)
  • Intense pain
  • Feeling that there may be something in the eyes
  • Redness and watering
  • Both eyes affected

CONTACT LENSES

Where there has been any injury to the eye, encourage the injured person to leave contact lenses in place.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue