First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Concussion

In itself, concussion is not a serious injury as the victim will recover when the disturbance caused by the impact stops. However, because concussion often accompanies violent head movement, there is always the possibility of a skull fracture or more serious, longer-term brain injury, such as compression. It is important therefore that even a seemingly recovered victim with concussion should seek medical treatment.

HOW TO TREAT CONCUSSION
  1. Place the victim in the recovery position if necessary and monitor ABC.

  2. Call an ambulance if the victim does not recover after 3 minutes or if there are signs of skull fracture or compressions.

  3. Advise the victim to seek medical advice if recovery appears to be complete.

  4. Encourage the victim to keep still while recovering because this reduces dizziness and nausea,

  5. Be aware of the increased likelihood of neck injuries.

COMPRESSION

Compression is a very serious injury that occurs when pressure is exerted on the brain, either by a piece of bone, bleeding, or swelling of the injured brain. It may develop immediately after a head injury or stroke, or some hours or even days later.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF COMPRESSION

  • Person becomes increasingly drowsy and unresponsive.
  • Flushed and dry skin.
  • Slurred speech and confusion.
  • Partial or total loss of movement, often down one side of the body.
  • One pupil bigger than the other.
  • Noisy breathing which becomes slow.
  • Slow, strong pulse.

HOW TO TREAT COMPRESSION

If some or all of these symptoms are present, suspect compression and carry out the following treatment.

  1. If the victim is unconscious, place in the recovery position and monitor airway, breathing, and circulation.

  2. If conscious, lay the victim down with the head and shoulders slightly raised, maintaining a close check on the ABC. Call an ambulance, and be prepared to resuscitate.

WARNING

Do not give anything to eat or drink—the victim may need a general anesthetic in hospital.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue