First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Crush Injuries, Impalement and Amputation

Crush injuries generally result from serious car accidents or explosions. There may be part of the body trapped under heavy debris; several broken bones, multiple external bleeding and much internal bleeding; burns form explosion; severe shock, deterioration into unconsciousness. If the person is impaled on an immovable object, treatment is similar to that for a foreign object embedded in wound. An amputation is where a part of the body has been severed. This may occur through a straight and heavy cut or through twisting and pulling under extreme force.

TREATING CRUSH INJURIES

  1. Ensure that it is safe to approach the scene. If in doubt, call 911 and wait for help.

  2. Monitor and maintain airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate

  3. Treat major bleeding and cover smaller wounds with sterile dressings.

  4. Keep the injured person still dressings.

  5. Keep the injured person still and try to reassure him or her while waiting for help.
  6. Treat for shock.

  7. Make an early call for an ambulance and inform medical staff what has happened.

IF THE INJURED PERSON IS TRAPPED

There are additional risks for the injured person if any part of the body is trapped. Releasing the body may bring on severe shock as fluid leaks to the injured part.

An even greater cause of concerns is “crush syndrome.” Toxins build up around the injury site are trapped by an object crushing the person. If the object is removed, these toxins are suddenly released into the body, and kidneys, the organs chiefly responsible for flushing out toxins, are overwhelmed. This condition may be fatal.

IF THE PERSON HAS BEEN TRAPPED FOR LESS THAN 10 MINUTES

Crush syndrome takes some time to develop. If you can do so, safely remove the object. Treat as for crush injuries.

IF THE PERSON HAS BEEN TRAPPED FOR LONGER THAN 10 MINUTES

Make an early call  for help, explaining the situation, but do not remove the object. Treat as for crush injuries and reassure the person.

TREATING IMPALEMENT

  1. Do not attempt to remove the object or to move the injured person.

  2. Provide swift assistance for the injured person, supporting his body weight where possible to prevent any further damage.

  3. If bleeding is severe, apply pressure around the edges of the wound without pressing on the object.

  4. Try to stop the object moving around as much as possible, enlisting bystander support where available.

  5. Call an ambulance, making sure that you explain the need for cutting equipment tools.

  6. Treat for shock as best you can.

TREATING AMPUTATION

1. Your priority is to stop any bleeding at the site of the injury. Apply direct pressure and raise the injured stump. An amputation high on the arm or leg can be accompanied by severe arterial bleeding, particularly if caused by a twisting or tearing movement. Be prepared to apply continuous pressure using several pads as necessary.

  2. If the bleeding comes under control, cover the wound  with a sterile dressing or clean non-fluffy material tied in place with a bandage.

   3. Treat for shock and reassure the person.

   4. Call 911, advising that there is an amputation.

FOR THE AMPUTED PART

A surgeon may be able to reattach amputated part.

  1. Wrap the part in a plastic and wrap the bag in a clean cloth.

  2. Place the cloth-wrapped bag in ice and place into a sturdy container. Do not let the ice come into close contact with the amputated part, because this will damage the flesh. Do not wash the amputated part.
Label the container with the time of injury and the victim’s name and make sure that you personally hand it over to medical staff.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue