First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition in which the body is unable to effectively regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. The pancreas, an organ in the body) normally produces a hormone called insulin that regulates blood sugar level. In a person suffering from diabetes this does not happen effectively and as a result blood sugar levels become too high (this is known as hyperglycemia). Most diabetics control the condition through a combination of diet and injections of insulin. Too much insulin can lead to a condition known as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Early signs:

  • Wanting to drink a lot (the body is trying to flush sugar from the system)
  • Passing water regularly (urine may smell sweet)
  • Lethargy

As the condition deteriorates:

  • Dry skin and rapid pulse
  • Deep, labored breathing
  • Increasing drowsiness
  • Breath or skin smells strongly of acetone (like nail-polish remover) as the body tries to get rid of sugar

HYPERGLYCEMIA

Hyperglycemia is most likely to occur in an undiagnosed diabetic. Diabetes is generally first noticed in early adolescence or in middle age. If left untreated, a high blood sugar level will lead to unconsciousness and death. Onset may be gradual with deterioration often happening over a number of days.

TREATMENT

During the early stages, encourage immediate contact with the local doctor. If this is difficult, or the condition deteriorates, take or send the person to hospital. Monitor airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

HYPOGLYCEMIA

Low blood sugar level has a quick and serious effect on the brain. Most commonly it is caused by somebody with diabetes either taking too much insulin, or taking the right amount of insulin and then either not eating enough or burning off sugar through vigorous exercise. Less commonly, it can accompany heat exhaustion, alcohol abuse, or epileptic fits.

TREATMENT

If the person is unconscious, monitor the airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate as necessary. If the person is fully conscious, help him to sit down or to lie down with the shoulders raised. Give something high in sugar and easy to consume, such as chocolate or a sugary drink, to try to restore the body’s chemical balance. If this marks an improvement, give more. If the condition does not improve, seek medical advice. Stay with the person until he recovers. Ask his guidance on what he wants to do next. Arrange for some help to take him home or to the doctor. If the condition continues to deteriorate, call an ambulance.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • History of diabetes (however, a diabetic suffering a hypoglycemia attack is often confused or aggressive and may not admit to having a diabetes)
  • Hunger
  • Feeling faint or dizzy
  • Strange behavior: confusion, aggression, or even violence
  • Pale, cold, sweaty skin
  • Rapid loss of unconsciousness
  • Shallow breathing
  • Evidence of diabetes, e.g. medic alert, sugar solution, or syringe in pocket
  • Evidence of recent heavy exercise or drinking

CONFUSION WITH OTHER CONDITIONS

It is not unusual for diabetes to be mistaken for other common situations such as drunkenness, substance abuse, compression. The treatment in all these situations is to monitor and maintain the airway, be prepared to resuscitate if necessary, use the recovery position if the person becomes unconscious, and seek medical advice or call emergency help.

Do not make assumptions as to the cause of the problem. Instead, look for clues to diagnosis for the medical staff. Somebody who is drunk may also be suffering from head injury; the syringe in a person’s coat may be for diabetic medication or for drug abuse. While you do not need to know the cause the medical staff do and any clues that you can hand over could be potentially life-saving.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue