First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Emergency Childbirth

It is very difficult that you will have to deliver a child in an unplanned-for situation. Even the second stage of labor can allow enough time for an ambulance or midwife to arrive. However, if you are called upon to help with an emergency birth, take comfort from the fact that there is little that you can do to affect the birth process. Your key role is to support the mother, to ensure that medical help has been called, and to care for the mother and baby after the birth.

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP?

  1. Ensure that the midwife or doctor has been called. If labor is in the early stages, ask the mother where she wants to be and make arrangements for transport.

  2. If at any time there is severe bleeding or signs and symptoms of shock, call 911.

  3. Support the mother in her most comfortable position. This will usually be standing or squatting—gravity helps the delivery process. Ask her what she would like you to do to help with the pain. Potential options include a warm bath, rubbing the small of her back, and offering frequent sips of water. Encourage her to breathe out as breath-holding makes pain worse by increasing muscle tension. Most pregnant women will have a pregnancy record. Help her to find this because it contains useful information for both you and the medical staff.

  4. If labor has progressed to the second stage and birth imminent, ensure that:

  • The woman has removed the clothes from her lower body.
  • The ambulance is on the way—the ambulance control or midwife may give you instructions over the phone.
  • You and the environment are as clean as they can be.
  • You have a warm covering for the baby and mother.
  1. Help the mother into a position she finds comfortable.

  2. Support the mother while she pushes out the baby as it descends.

  3. Support the head and shoulders as the baby appear—this will happen naturally and quickly. Do not pull the baby. If the cord is wrapped around the neck, check that it is loose and gently pull it over the head.

  4. Gently lift the baby and place on the mother’s stomach. There is no need to cut the cord. If the baby does not show any signs of movement, check its airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

  5. Keep mother and baby warm while waiting for the ambulance. The placenta and cord will follow shortly—keep these for the medical staff to check. Gently massaging below the navel may help stop the bleeding.

SIGNS THAT THE BIRTH MAY IMMINENT

  • Contractions less than 2 minutes apart
  • Strong urge to push
  • Bulging vaginal opening
  • Baby’s head is visible

If the urge to bear down comes on the way to hospital, the mother can try using breathing techniques to avoid pushing.

IF THE BABY IS BREECH (NOT HEAD FIRST)
The concern with the breech birth is that the largest part of the baby (the head) may not be easily delivered. If the baby is breech a foot, knee, or buttock may come out first. If this happens:

  1. Ensure that medical help has been called.

  2. Allow the birth to continue—do not try to stop the baby coming out.

  3. Support the baby’s body as it is delivered.

  4. If the head is not delivered within 3 minutes of the shoulders, gently raise the baby’s legs to the ceiling until you can see the face (do not pull the baby from the mother). Wipe the face clear and encourage the mother to keep pushing until the head is delivered.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue