First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Fractures of the Upper Body

The collarbone can be broken by direct impact. However, it is most commonly fractured by indirect force moving up the arm following a fall on to an outstretched hand, and often happens after a fall from a bicycle or a horse. A broken shoulder often follows a heavy impact to the site of injury. It is therefore important to do a careful examination to rule out back or rib injury.

BROKEN COLLARBONE

Along with potential swelling, bruising, and tenderness above the site of the injury, the victim is most likely to be supporting the injured arm, with the shoulder on the injured side slumped. Since the collarbone is close to the skin it is particularly important to look for an open fracture.

BROKEN SHOULDER

If you are confident that the shoulder itself is broken then the treatment is to work with the victim to find the best position. The application of an arm sling may provide some support, but more commonly the victim will want no bandages, settling instead for steady support from another person if available. The pain of the injury may make it necessary to call for an ambulance rather than transporting the victim to hospital in a car.

TREATMENT

If the bone has pierced the skin, place a light dressing over the wound. Bleeding is likely minimal and your main concern is to prevent infection.

Work with the injured person to find the most comfortable position for the arm and for the body as a whole. Generally this will be sitting up with the arm supported at the elbow. The victim may wish to go to hospital in this position, but should be offered the option of an elevation sling, which will help alleviate pressure on the collarbone and provide some comfort.

WARNING

Do not give anything to eat or drink—the victim may need a general anesthetic in hospital.

Left

A broken collarbone often happens following a fall from a bicycle or a horse rather than direct impact. Use an elevation sling to take the weight of the arm and relieve pressure on the collarbone. It is important to check for an open fracture as the collarbone is close to the skin and may easily puncture it.

APPLYING AN ELEVATION SLING

The elevation sling has a range of uses. As well as the treatment of a broken collarbone, it also provides comfort in the treatment of crushed or broken fingers and hands, relief in the treatment of burns to the arm, and is an aid in controlling bleeding through elevation.

  1. Place the injured arm with the fingers by the collarbone on the uninjured side.
  2. Place the triangular bandage with the point resting at the elbow on the injured side.
  3. Tuck the bandage underneath the hand and down underneath the injured arm.
  4. Tie at the collarbone in a square knot (or a bow).
  5. Fasten the spare material at the elbow with a pin or twist it and tuck it away,
Extra support can be gained by placing a triangular bandage folded into three (a broad fold) around the arm and body.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue