First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Injuries to the Lower Body

A broken bone in the lower body is a serious injury that requires hospital treatment. The pelvis is a large bone and is generally very difficult to break. Severe impact such as a fall from a height or a car accident are the most common cause in young, fit adults. In the elderly a broken pelvis (or hip) happens more often and can be caused by a relatively minor impact. In healthy adults it takes a major impact to break the thighbone and there are likely to be other injuries.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF A BROKEN PELVIS

  • Bruising and swelling over hip area
  • Urge to urinate
  • Blood-stained urine
  • A sensation of falling apart: the pelvis is like  a girdle and a break means that it may not be able to hold itself together
  • Legs rotate outward as the support at the pelvis gives

Because the pelvis can also be broken at the back, it is easy to mistake a pelvic fracture for a spinal injury. If in doubt, treat for a broken spine.

BROKEN PELVIS

The pelvis protects the urinary system and the biggest danger is the sharp bone ends may burst the bladder, creating the possibility of infection. Internal bleeding is another likelihood with a fractured hip, because the impact required to break the bone is likely to have caused other damage.

TREATMENT

  1. Call an ambulance immediately and reassure the victim while you wait.

  2. This is a very serious condition and it is best not to move the victim because you could easily make things worse.

  3. If the ambulance will be some time, tie the legs gently together at the ankles and knees using triangular or improvised bandages.

  4. Treat the victim for shock.

FRACTURES OF THE UPPER LEG

The key risk with fractures of the femur (thigh bone) in the upper leg is shock. The thighbone protects the main artery in the leg, the femoral artery, and if broken may pierce it, causing severe internal bleeding.

A person with a broken thighbone will require transportation by ambulance. The general treatment is therefore nothing more than to immobilize the injured part and treat the victim for shock. Do not bandage the leg if help is on its way—this likely to cause more pain and potentially cause further damage.

Support the leg above and below the site of the fracture if possible, placing padding around the broken leg to further help to reduce movement of the injured limb.

If you have trained in the use of traction then you may apply this gently to the leg to help to reduce pain and circulatory damage.

The injured person may benefit from immobilization of the broken leg by using the good leg as a splint, particularly if there will be a delay before medical help arrives.

  1. Apply broad fold triangular bandages under the ankles, knees, and above and below the site of the fracture.

  2. Place padding between the legs to help immobilize them.

  3. Gently but firmly tie the bandages on the injured side.

  4. Take care to check thee circulation below the bandages to ensure that they do not become too tight as the leg swells.

Above

A fractured thighbone may pierce the main artery in the leg, causing severe internal bleeding. The best treatment is to keep the limb still and treat the victim for shock.

WARNING

  • Do not give anything to eat or drink—the victim may need a general anesthetic in hospital.
Do not move the victim unless he is in danger or needs resuscitation.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue