First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Injuries to the Lower Leg

The long bones, the knee, and the foot are often injured during sports. There are two long bones in the lower leg. The tibia (shinbone) lies very close to the surface and if broken will often pierce the skin, causing an open fracture. The fibula lies behind the tibia. It is more difficult to break this bone and may not obviously affect the ability to walk. The knee is a complex joint vulnerable to fractures of the patella (kneecap), dislocation, strains, and cartilage (tissue) injury. It is unusual to break just one bone in the foot—generally, multiple fractures of the small bones in the foot and the toes are caused by crush injuries.

TREATING A BROKEN LONG BONES
  1. Help the injured person into most comfortable position—generally, lying down.
  2. Examine the injury carefully to see whether there is an open break. If there is a wound, cover gently with a sterile dressing or clean, non-fluffy material, pad around the broken area and tie gently but firmly into place.
  3. Gently support the injury above and below the site of the break. Place padding such as cushions or blankets around the site of the injury.
  4. If you have been trained to do so, applying traction may help alleviate the pain and any potential damage to circulation.
  5. Treat for shock and reassure.

TREATING A BROKEN LEG

A person with a broken leg is most likely to be transported to hospital by an ambulance and the treatment in most settings is therefore limited to steady support and help with immobilization.

Right

Lower leg bones are often injured during sport. The kneecap is particularly vulnerable to injury.

 
TREATING KNEE INJURIES

In addition to the normal signs and symptoms of bone and soft tissue injuries, there may be an obvious displacement of the kneecap or an inability to bend or straighten the leg.

Help the injured person into the most comfortable position. He will generally need to be transported to hospital by ambulance.

  1. Check the injured area carefully for an open break and treat as appropriate.

  2. Pad around and under the injured area to provide support, gently tying the padding in place if needed.

  3. Treat for shock and reassure the victim until help arrives.

  4. Do not try to bend the leg because you may cause more damage. Keep it still.

Above

It may be difficult to identify a knee injury, and treatment for a damaged kneecap, sprains, and cartilage injury is broadly the same.

TREATING A BROKEN FOOT

  1. If possible, carefully remove the shoes and socks, tights, or stockings because the foot is likely to swell and these items of clothing may damage the circulation.

  2. Cover any wound with a sterile dressing or clean, non-fluffy material.

  3. Raise the foot to reduce swelling and pain and support with a large comfortable pad such as a cushion or blanket.

  4. Wrap the foot in padding. If necessary, this can be held in place with a cover bandage. A cold compress may further alleviate pain and swelling.

Take or send the injured person to hospital.

Above

A broken foot usually involves more than one fractures bone because it tends to be caused by a crush injury, when something heavy is dropped on it. Remove shoes and socks because the foot will probably swell and items of clothing may restrict circulation.

WARNING

Do not give anything to eat or drink—the victim may need a general anesthetic in hospital.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue