First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Internal Bleeding

Severe internal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition. While the blood may not be obvious, it is still lost from the circulatory system and the victim is therefore very likely to go into shock. Internal bleeding may also cause a build-up pressure that, in areas such as the skull or around the heart, can cause serious problems, loss of consciousness and, if untreated, lead to death.

SITES OF BLEEDING

Internal bleeding can be very difficult to identify. It is not unusual for internal bleeding to happen slowly, with sign and symptoms showing up days after an accident. It can happen to any part of the body but the richness of the blood supply in the stomach, around the organs such as the liver and spleen, and in the bowel make these sites particularly vulnerable.

Internal bleeding is also likely to accompany some broken bones. The thigh bone protects the femoral artery and if broken may pierce it, causing a large and life-threatening bleed.

TREATMENT

  1. Treatment for shock. Keep the person warm. Place him in a comfortable position, preferably lying down with the legs slightly raised. Reassure him. Treat any external bleeding or bleeding from orifices.

  2. Call 911 as soon as possible and explain what has happened.

Monitor and record the person’s pulse and breathing rates. This information will be useful for the medical staff in determining the extent of the injury.

If the person becomes unconscious, place in recovery position and monitor airway and breathing. Be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

MAJOR ORGANS SUSCEPTIBLE TO INTERNAL BLEEDING

Internal bleeding can happen in any part of the body but the stomach, the liver, spleen, and intestines are particularly vulnerable because they have a rich blood supply. Internal bleeding can be very difficult to identify and signs and symptoms may not arise until several days after an accident has occurred.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • The person is known to have had an accident (not necessarily in the immediate past)

  • Signs and symptoms of shock

  • Bruising

  • Boarding—this most commonly occurs where there is bleeding into the stomach area; the quantity of blood combined with the tissues swelling result in a rigidity to the tissues.

  • Swelling

  • Bleeding from the body orifices

If there is any combination of these signs and symptoms, suspect internal bleeding.

BRUISING

Less serious internal bleeding such as small bruises can be treated with a cold compress to relieve pain and reduce swelling. However, the possibility of further internal bleeding or underlying injury should not be ruled out, particularly if the victim is known, for example, to have hit his head on a window during a traffic accident, or has been hit in the stomach by a reversing automobile.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue