First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
At the Emergency Scene

When faced with an emergency situation, you should follow a set routine and establish your priorities. If possible, send someone to call for medical help while you deal with the situation. Make sure that you are in no danger and make the scene safe. Then check the victims’ condition and carry out treatment as appropriate.



GETTING APPROPRIATE HELP
Life-threatening emergencies require professional medical assistance. If possible, ask a bystander to contact emergency services by dialing 911. Useful information to have at hand includes:

• Details of what happened.
• Number of people injured.
• Type of illness or injuries.
• Whether or not person is breathing.
• The exact address with landmarks if possible.
• A contact phone number.

Do not hang up until the operator tells you to. He or she may be able to guide you through first aid procedures if you are unsure of what to do next.

MAKING THE SCENE SAFE
The cardinal rule of first aid is to ensure that you can give assistance without endangering yourself. Do not rush to the scene: walk slowly and steadily, looking around for potential dangers and an overview of what has happened. Be prepared to take charge unless someone more qualified than you is present. Identify dangers and remove them if it is safe to do so, but if you cannot eliminate the danger, call for emergency help and advice and consider whether the danger poses continuing risk to the injured person. If it does, assess whether you can safely move him or her. If in doubt, do not approach the scene. Keep everybody else back and call for emergency help.

Potential dangers include:
• At the scene of an accident --- other cars, broken glass or metal, or an unsteady crash vehicle.
• Chemicals, fire, or electricity.
• Aggressive behavior in those who maybe ill, hysterical, or as a result of drugs or alcohol.
• Sharp objects on the floor such as a knife or syringe.


TREATING THE INJURED OR ILL
If you can give first aid safely, your priorities are to maintain an open airway and resuscitate if necessary to treat serious bleeding and to treat for shock. If faced with several injured people, always approach the quietest first --- a person who is shouting is at least able to maintain a clear airway.
Determining what may be wrong with an injured person is part of the treatment. To help you reach a provisional diagnosis you need to consider:

• What actually happened (from what you or the bystander has observed).
• The signs (what you can see, hear, touch, or smell on the victim such as pale skin, swelling, noisy breathing, or alcohol on the breath).
• The symptoms (what the injured or ill persons tell you --- for example, he or she feels dizzy or is in pain.

First aid by its very nature is often highly emotional activity. It is important that, after helping at the scene of the accident, you give yourself the chance to discuss what happened, what you did and how you feel with your family and friends.
 
 
911 Dispatcher

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue