If a child or infant has no pulse and is not breathing you will need to give CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) to enable the body’s vital organs to continue functioning. After providing the initial rescue breathing, check the circulation to see if the heart is effectively pumping blood, and therefore oxygen, around the body. Look, listen, and feel for breathing, coughing, movement, normal color, or any other sign of life for no more than 10 seconds. If there are no signs of circulation, or if you are at all unsure, start chess compressions. This must be given with the child lying on their back on a firm surface.
CHEST COMPRESSIONS FOR CHILDREN
These techniques broadly apply for a child between 1-7 years old. However, you should take into account the size of the child when deciding whether to use the techniques for children or infants.
1. Place the heel of one hand on the lower half of the breastbone. Lean well over the victim and, with your arm straight, press vertically down and depress the breastbone one-third on the depth of the chest.
2. Release the pressure without losing contact between your hands and the breastbone. Compress the chest 5 times at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. Compression and release should take an equal amount of time.
COMBINING CHEST COMPRESSIONS WITH RESCUE BREATHING FOR CHILDREN
Chest compressions circulate blood to the vital organs such as the brain. To ensure that this blood contains oxygen, you need to combine chest compressions with rescue breathing. The procedure is the same as CPR for an adult but the chest compressions are not as forceful and the rate of breaths and compressions is different. After 5 compressions, tilt the head, lift the chin and give 1 effective breath. Continue this cycle of CPR. Do not interrupt the CPR sequence unless the child makes a movement or takes a breath on her own. Continue until:
• Emergency help arrives and takes over.
• The child shows signs of circulation.
• You become so exhausted you cannot carry on. (Try to find someone to take over until medical help arrive.)
CHEST COMPRESSIONS FOR BABIES
These techniques broadly apply for a baby under 1 year. However, a large baby may require the techniques for a child and a small child may be better with the techniques for a baby.
1. Place the two fingers of one hand on the lower half of the breastbone, Lean well over the baby and, with your arm straight, press vertically down and depress the breastbone one-third of the depth of the chest.
2. Release the pressure without losing contact between your hands and the breastbone. Compress the chest 5 times at a rate 100 compressions per minute. Compression and release should take an equal amount of time.
COMBINING CHEST COMPRESSIONS WITH RESCUE BREATHING FOR BABIES
Chest compressions circulate the blood to the vital organs, and to ensure that this blood contains oxygen, chest compressions need to be combined with rescue breathing.
After 5 compressions, lift the baby’s chin and give 1 effective breath. Continue this cycle of 5 compressions to 1 effective breath. Do not interrupt the CPR sequence unless the baby makes a movement or takes a breath on her own. Continue until
• Emergency help arrives and takes over.
• The baby shows signs of circulation.
• Somebody can take over from you if you are exhausted.
WHEN TO CALL FOR HELP
With children and babies, the heart is most likely to stop because of problems with breathing. Therefore, if you are alone and have to call for an ambulance yourself, you should give 1 minute CPR before leaving to make the call. This will ensure the oxygen has been circulated around the body, the most effective treatment for breathing problems.
If the child is small enough, you may be able to carry her to the phone with you. Try not to leave the child unattended. If the infant recovers at nay time, stop performing CPR but monitor the breathing and circulation rates until medical help arrives.
ABC OR RESUSCITATION
Airway Use head tilt and chin lift to keep the airway open while provide rescue breathing.
Breathing Provide rescue breathing to somebody who is not breathing.
Circulation Check for signs of circulation and combine rescue breathing with chest compressions if you think the heart has stopped beating.