First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Cold Water Survival Techniques

Today there are many different pursuits that can be undertaken on water, often by people with limited experience. Under appropriate supervision most water sports are perfectly safe, although the combination of weather, unpredictable water, and inexperience can lead to difficulties. The biggest danger from the water is drowning. There are simple measures that can help prevent this situation, such as wearing a personal flotation device or having rescue equipment to hand.


IN THE WATER ALONE

Should an accident occur and you find yourself in a situation where you may be in water for some time, there are some simple but effective ways of staying as warm as possible.

Cover your head with a hat or hood—remember that one-third of your body heat is lost through your head

Blasts on a whistle, or the release of flares, will alert others to your situation

Bring your knees up to your chest and wrap your arms around them, making yourself into a ball. This exposes less skin area to the water, which slows down the cooling process and buys you valuable time.

COLD SHOCK

Falling into cold water can almost literally take your breath away. This is known as cold shock. The body’s response to this sudden immersion in cold water causes the breathing and heart rate soar. Although this is normally not a problem, when the water is less than 59ºF, sudden immersion can cause the heart to beat rates of 150-180 beats per minute and the breathing rate to rise to 60-90 breaths per minute. This may completely incapacitate a young fit person, and in a less fit or older person cause hear attack or stroke.

When safely out of the water, treat the victim for hypothermia and call 911. Monitor and maintain the airway and be prepared to resuscitate the victim if necessary.

IN THE WATER AS A GROUP

If there is more than one person in the water then there are additional steps.

Ensure that everyone’s head is covered and do not let anyone fall asleep

If you have children with you, place them in the middle of the group and huddle up as close as possible, bringing your knees up to your chest

Inflate your personal flotation device, and call everyone together in a group

Stay calm and take turns calling for help

PREPARING FOR ACTIVITY WHERE IMMERSION IN COLD WATER IS A POSSIBILITY

The water temperature of the coastal waters around the US can be as cold as 40ºF or as warm as 80ºF, making even the warmest ocean temperature (98.6ºF). Water conducts heat approximately 25 times faster than air, meaning that heat will be lost rapidly from the body. Hypothermia is therefore a big risk following immersion in cold water, particularly if you are not wearing appropriate clothing. If you know that there is a risk that you will be immersed in water for some time, always wear proper protective clothing such as nylon underwear, a thick layer of fleece, a dry suit, and a head covering.

Always undertake water sports under appropriate supervision and consider the many sources of information about the conditions of the water that you are visiting, such as the coastguard, beach offices, sailing and diving clubs, and local water-sports shops.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue