First Aid Techniques
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
Everyday First Aid
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
Using Dressings and Cold
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
What They Do and Side
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
Stretcher Improvisation

In certain extreme circumstances it may be necessary to transport a person who is sick or injured to a place of safety. Should you find yourself in such a situation, there are a number of techniques whereby stretcher can be quickly improvised.


  1. Select two strong branches that will extend by about 1 foot either end of the person to be carried. Ensure that the branch is tested for rot and that any sharp parts are cut away. It is also worth checking for moss at each end as this will make any grip slippery. Although the branches do not have to be exactly the same size, it will obviously help if they are roughly the same length. It is vital that they are capable of holding the weight of the victim.

  2. Now select some clothing that is strong since this will bear the weight of the victim. Items made of denim and good quality cotton T-shirts are ideal. You should not forget yourself—do not give away clothing that may mean you are at risk from the weather.

  3. Slide the clothing on to the poles with the poles coming through the arms of the garment. Place the next piece of clothing on to the poles in the same way and overlap the first item. Place enough pieces of clothing on to the poles to ensure that the victim’s head and legs will be supported.

You could use this kind of system using a large plastic survival bag instead of clothing. These can be purchased inexpensively from most camping and outdoor shops. Instead of sliding clothing over the poles, holes are made in each corner of the sealed end of the bag large enough for the poles to be fed through, ensuring that the bag will not split once any weight is placed on it.


  1. It is possible to use the survival bag as a stretcher without damaging it. Lay the bag out and, depending on how many people you have to help with the carry, collect stones large enough for each person to grip. Next, using string or rope, tie the stones at each corner of the bag and at each side in the middle. If stones are not available, items of clothing such as hats, socks or gloves can be used in place.

  2. There are definite limitations to this kind of stretcher. The polythene is relatively easy to split, especially on rough ground, and when wet can be extremely slippery. Therefore care should be taken when picking the stretcher up and you should always take things slowly.
If you do not have a survival bag handy, the flysheet of a tent will do instead. However, bear in mind that rocks and stones may damage the fabric.
Vomiting and Diarrhea

First Aid Procedures
Breathing Difficulties
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning from Household
Poisoning from Industrial
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Emergency Childbirth
Wilderness First Aid
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue