First Aid Techniques
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
Everyday First Aid
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
Using Dressings and Cold
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
What They Do and Side
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help?

Undertaking any journey into the wilderness requires careful preparation. When planning a trip you need to take many factors into account, including what you would do in the case of an accident or illness. Most treatments remain exactly the same for wilderness conditions.


The following are some of the things that you may like to consider when planning your journey, as well as some questions that you may like to ask yourself. Take a cellular phone but be aware that network coverage may be poor or nonexistent in the area you are visiting.


Is the area that you are visiting suitable for all the abilities in your family or group? An area with reputation for beauty will not necessarily be safe.


Is everyone in your group fit enough to undertake the trip, or is anyone suffering from any injuries or illnesses? If so, does the person have enough medication?

The right clothes

Having the right clothes for the environment that you will be visiting could mean the difference between life and death. Having an outer layer that is windproof, keeps water out, keeps the heat in, and allows sweat to evaporate will help the other layers stay dry and function correctly. The next layers should consist of a fleece-type jumper or jacket. A shirt and underwear made of polypropylene will draw moisture away from the skin. Today’s modern clothing is designed to be functional even when wet and will dry out surprisingly quickly.


Choose footwear that supports your ankle, is waterproofed, and is comfortable and well worn in. This will help prevent sprains, broken bones, and blistering.


Carry first aid and survival equipment suitable for your route.

Planning your route

Ensure that the route is realistically within the ability of your family or group and achievable in the amount of time available. Always tell someone who is not going with you what your route is, who is going, what time you are starting, and what time you will be finishing.


If faced with an accident or illness a long way from help, your priorities are:

  • To secure the safety of the whole group.
  • To treat the injury or illness.
  • To obtain help.
  • To seek appropriate shelter.

Careful preparation is essential before you set off on your trip. The biggest decision you will probably have to make relates to obtaining help. If you have not got a cellular phone, or you cannot get a signal, you will have to make alternative arrangements.

If one member of the group is unable to continue, a decision will have to be made to split the group or wait for help as a whole. The decision will depend on a number of factors.

  • Popularity of the route and therefore likelihood of passers-by.
  • Access to shelter.
  • Nature of the injury or illness and the speed at which help is required.
  • Skills of group members in survival and navigation.
  • Weather conditions.
  • Time of day.

If sending people for help, make sure that your equipment is divided appropriately. Ensure that those leaving have a good directions and navigation aids and those remaining have sound shelter. If the weather is poor or it is dark, consider waiting until conditions improve. Instead, seek shelter.

Carrying an injured or ill person for help should be a last resort because it poses risks to both the person being carried and those lifting and moving him. There are a number of ways in which a stretcher can be improvised.

  • Maintaining warmth when treating shock or conditions such as hypothermia may require the creation of shelter. Focus on putting blankets or survival bags under the injured person and covering the head, hands, and feet as well as putting a blanket over him.

  • Consider shelter from the sun and the heat and make sure that everyone in the party drinks enough liquid, including the injured person (providing that he is fully conscious).

  • Be aware that altitude sickness may develop if you are high in the mountains because of reduced levels of oxygen in the air. Symptoms include tiredness, headache, unsteadiness, and nausea.

  • Broken bones, burns, and contusions swell. Continually recheck bandaging to ensure that it is not cutting of circulation. Loosen and retie as necessary.
Consider providing extra bandaging support to broken bones—particularly if the injured person needs to be moved.
Vomiting and Diarrhea

First Aid Procedures
Breathing Difficulties
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning from Household
Poisoning from Industrial
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Emergency Childbirth
Wilderness First Aid
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue