First Aid Techniques
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
Everyday First Aid
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
Using Dressings and Cold
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
What They Do and Side
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
Wilderness First Aid

Should there be an accident, or a member of your group is taken ill, you have two choices: either send someone for help or wait for help to arrive. The decision you make will depend on the weather conditions, the ability to navigate, how far it is to get help, and what kind of terrain you will have to cover. Only in the most extreme circumstances should a victim be left alone, and you should leave the injured person spare clothing and food. The victim will also require a whistle and/or flashlight in order to alert the rescue services. Finally, the person should be told to stay where he is and not move.

Whoever goes for help should carry with them enough spare clothing and equipment to deal with any situation that may be faced. The person should also take the following information:
  • The exact location of the injured person or group (this is best done using a six-figure grid reference).

  • What has happened.

  • When it occurred.

  • What injuries or condition they have.

  • A description of where they are.

  • Who else is with them.


There are internationally recognized signals that can be used while out in the wilderness that are easily remembered and require no special equipment. Although shouting for help may attract attention, after a while you will become hoarse and tired. Voices do not carry as well as other sounds such as whistle blast, which can be heard over surprisingly large distances. At night, light can also travel much further than voices during the day a reflective object as much as a mirror can send rays of the sun a considerable distance.

There are two international signals for help. The first is SOS, which represents the phrase Save Our Souls. Although Morse code is no longer used in everyday life, it is still practiced to summon help in emergency situations. For an audible signal on a whistle, give three short blasts (S) three long blasts (O) and three shorts blasts (S). With a light signal, give three short flashes (S) three long flashes (O) and three short flashes (S). Alternatively, six blasts of whistle or six flashes of light in quick succession also mean that help is needed. A red flare also acts as an emergency distress call on water and in the mountains.

You may find that you can hear instructions given by a mountain rescue team or similar through a megaphone from a helicopter but are unable to shout back to them.

There are three ways in which you can communicate that you understood their message:

  • Give three blasts on a whistle in quick succession, repeated after a 1-minute interval.

  • Give three flashes of the flashlight in quick succession, repeated after a 1-minute interval
Send up a white flare
Vomiting and Diarrhea

First Aid Procedures
Breathing Difficulties
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning from Household
Poisoning from Industrial
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Emergency Childbirth
Wilderness First Aid
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue